Conflict also disrupts growth. Although many conflic

icts appear to have a religious or ethnic basis, some scholars believe their root cause may be economic, with ethnic divisio

s serving as a way to exclude other groups from access to scarce resources and opportunities. Whatever its so

urce, inequality of opportunity has a highly disruptive effect on governance and hence growth.

But these obstacles are not insurmountable. For one th

ing, developing countries now have huge potential export markets in middle-inc

ome countries, and no longer depend entirely on advanced economies for access to global markets.

Belt and Road can play vital development role

There is also a renewed awareness of the importance of infrastructure in e

nabling growth. In addition to roads, railways and ports, electricity and digital conn

ectivity are crucial. In this regard, the rapid expansion of cellular wireless technology, combined with the install

ation of high-capacity undersea broadband pipes around Africa, represents major prog

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Most Chinese State-owned enterprises are not relevant to tra

ade negotiations. Many are in non-tradable sectors such as property develop

ment, infrastructure, or concrete. Others are basically public utilities in telecoms or power.

Some Chinese car companies are State-owned, usually by provincial govern

ments, but the car business in China is very highly competitive and foreign brands are very successful.

In any case, the continuing growth of an already large private sector should alleviate foreign concerns

about competing with State-owned companies.

During the George W. Bush administration, the US imposed tarif

fs on Chinese steel, arguing that State-owned companies had an unfair advantage. But, US ste

el companies also face higher costs because of increased environmental protection. China’s current emphasis on bu

ilding an “ecological civilization” means that that kind of polluting heavy industry will be less viable.

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True, the first quarter of 2019 yielded better-than-expe

ted results. But the higher rate of FAI growth was to a large extent driven by a strong increase in investment in real estate, which is l

ikely to weaken sooner or later owing to the government’s commitment to cooling China’s “real-esta

te fever”. And, given the trade frictions with the US, China’s export performance for the rest of 2019 is highly uncertain.

To compensate for declining investment in real estate and weakening exports, China must maintain reasonable growth in inf

rastructure investment. To that end, the government should pursue higher spending (taking advantage of a strong fis

cal position), supported by accommodative monetary policy (amid very low inflation).

Fiscal and monetary expansion may be out of fashion among China’s mainstream economists, who insist that struct

ural adjustment must be the priority. But it could go a long way toward bolstering China’s economic per

formance in 2019, without impeding structural reform. The challenge is to strike the right balance.

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plemented more favorable visa policies for Chinese student

he said. The report also found that studying overseas is no longer limited to wealthy fam

ilies, and the number of students from middle-class families studying overseas keeps growing.

According to the survey on parents’ professional backgrounds, most parents whose children prefer studying overseas hold o

rdinary positions at work, accounting for 43 percent of the total, up 14 percentage points from 2015.

Parents who are middle-level managers accounted for 35 percent, and those who are high-level executives accounted for 22 per

cent, the report said. The number of students studying overseas for master’s degrees continues to increase, a

counting for 70 percent of the total, up from 57 percent in 2016. They are studying ov

erseas to obtain higher academic qualifications and be more competitive in the domestic job market, it said.

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the World Trade Organization in 2001. That paved the

way to more than a decade of export-led double-digit economic grow

th, and the ongoing shift from export-led quantitative economic growth to inno

vation-led qualitative development, which has accelerated under President Xi Jinping’s leadership.

China’s industrialization peaked between the late 1990s and 2008, when the

global financial crisis broke out. Now China’s rate of growth is decelerating, which has been

the norm for all industrialized countries from Great Britain in the 19th century to the US in the 20th century.

In China, deceleration is a sign that rebalancing toward consumption and innovation by 2030 is on track.

Nevertheless, the living standard in China continues to improve st

eadily. Today, it is about a third relative to the US. In other words, it has multiplied six tim

es relative to US living standard, thus supporting the rise of the world’s largest emerging middle-income group.

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The kind of view that he expressed is certainly in th

 right direction, and I’m encouraged by all of that,” said Jack Perkowski, a Wall S

treet veteran and founder and managing partner of JFP Holdings in New York.

Perkowski said that when combined with a perceived lack of legal enforc

ement, the issue of protecting IPR has always been the single biggest hurdle for most

companies from the United States when thinking about entering the China market.

He said every aspect of doing business in China has gotten better in the past two decades in the view of international investors.

Perkowski said IPR protection has emerged as a key issue. “China is deve

loping economically and technologically, so the bar is getting higher,” he said.

Savio Chan, CEO of US China Partners Inc, a business development f

irm, said the government’s crackdown on “squatting”-registering a large number of tradem

arks in order to unfairly profit-will improve the environment and help enterprises build brands with real value.

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Ahmed Hassan Alhammadi, manager of the United Arab

Emirates Pavilion, hasn’t had time yet to visit the China Pavilion as he has been busy with his own pavilion.

“We will have more time later to have a walk in the park, and the China Pavilion will be our first stop for sure,” he said.

The International Pavilion, a venue for international horticultural exhibitions and competitions duri

ng the expo, has a public space with an overhang made of 94 structures representing flowers and umbrellas.

As the exhibition will also be held during the hottest days of the Beijing summer, these o

verhead structures will help reduce muggy conditions for crowds waiting in line for entry.

Using sustainable technologies, including natural ventilation, solar photovoltaics and rainw

ater recycling, the International Pavilion is also a green building with low energy consumption.

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said that “all military units deployed in the eigh

The People’s Bank of China (PBOC), the central bank, has upgra

ded the fifth edition of the renminbi (RMB), the Chin

ese currency, and on Monday announced the issuing of the new batch from Aug 30.

The new issuance will include notes with a face value of 50 y

uan ($7), 20 yuan, 10 yuan and one yuan, and coins valued one yuan, 50 fen and 10 fen.

Compared with the current series in circulation, the new batch will see brighte

r colors and adjusted patterns with enhanced anti-conterfeiting feature, a PBOC official said.

The five-yuan note will not be in the upcoming issuance as new technologies on the note are still under testing. The 100-y

uan note was issued in November 2015, which has shown improved anti-conterfeiting capability, said the PBOC source.

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President hails Nepal’s participation in BRinping holds

China and Nepal should strengthen cooperation on infrastructure construction and continue to promote the constructi

on of the China-Nepal cross-border economic cooperation zone, President Xi Jinping said in Beijing on Monday.

Xi made the remark during his meeting with his Nepali co

unterpart, Bidhya Devi Bhandari, who is on a nine-day state visit to China.

China greatly values its ties with Nepal, and supports Nepal in mai

ntaining its national independence, state sovereignty and terr

itorial integrity as well as exploring a path of development that suits its national conditions, Xi said.

Also, China appreciates Nepal’s firm and long-standing support over issues related to C

hina’s core interests and major concerns and its active participation in jointly building th

e Belt and Road, Xi said. He added that China will continue to support Nepal’s economic and social development.

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The annual report estimates that total electricity cons

umption in 2019 is expected to grow 5.8 percent. Demand for coal is expected to hit 3.95 billion

tons, with the power sector still playing a significant role in the consumption of coal.

Consumption of oil is predicted to reach 620 million tons, up 1.6 percent year-on-year, while

the growth rate for natural gas consumption is expected to slow, with an annual consumption of 310 billi

on cubic meters in 2019, up 10.4 percent year-on-year, it said.The 2019 Beijing International Horticultural Ex

hibition (Expo 2019 Beijing) opens to visitors Monday, and will showcase a wide variety of flowers, fruits, vegetables and

herbs from across the world, including more than 300 rare and endangered plant species.

Nearly 20,000 volunteers across media, translation and giving directio

ns will work at the 162-day event, running April 29 – Oct 7. Click to watch their greetings in s

even languages: Chinese, English, Russian, French, German, Spanish and Japanese.

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